Graduate students are hired as teaching assistants TAs to perform this work, and are paid at the current TA rate. This is in additional to the standard stipend and tuition support provided to all graduate students. The application deadline is in early August. Yes, but be cautious committing to large TA assignments because this might result in slow research progress. Fifty hours per term of TA work is a reasonable maximum.
In particular, there is a peak in the year , in which nine articles were published. The majority of the articles were published in the research areas of business and management, with only seven articles published in the research areas of innovation and technology. Although the individual-level perspective was an inclusion criterion, some publications also considered the organizational-level of intrapreneurship either EO or CE.
Regarding the research subject, the sample articles examined factors predicting innovative behaviour, differences between entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, individual and organizational antecedents of intrapreneurship activities, as well as management and leadership. Some authors focused on management themes, such as the role of middle-level managers Kuratko et al.
Other research has been done examining CE and its influence on employee behaviour, such as the new roles of engineers as technology intrapreneurs Menzel et al. In addition to thematic diversity, the articles in the sample also applied different methodological approaches. Only seven articles concerned qualitative research, applying interviews and case studies. Six articles drew on case studies, of which two applied a multiple case study approach. Furthermore, theoretical research work is underrepresented, as only three publications were of a conceptual nature.
From onward, quantitative research outweighed qualitative and conceptual research, a development that is quite typical of emerging research fields. Almost all studies were cross-sectional and only one applied a longitudinal research approach, using interviews to analyse the changed role of engineers and a shift from engineering to entrepreneurial tasks.
The sample contained no article giving an overview of prior research in the field of intrapreneurship or a review of the literature in this field. This further underlines the need for an SLR undertaken to map the literature streams and focus on intrapreneurship research at the individual level.
The sample articles used various theoretical perspectives to investigate individual-level intrapreneurship. The majority of the journal articles clearly defined a theoretical foundation; indeed most were based on more than one theory. Only two empirical publications lacked a clarification of the theoretical framework.
In terms of definitions provided in the sample articles, the theoretical concepts of intrapreneurship, CE and EO were the theoretical foundations most mentioned. Besides meeting the inclusion criterion of a focus on individual-level intrapreneurship, some papers also applied organizational-level constructs. Articles based on the CE approach tend to be rooted in the work of Antoncic and Hisrich , as they clarified the intrapreneurship concept and developed a framework to distinguish CE from intrapreneurship, as well as dimensions of organizational-level intrapreneurship. A second source applied to CE research is the work of Kanter She underlined the relevance of initiatives undertaken by individuals within organizations and stated that CE should result in innovation behaviour among employees.
Articles using the EO framework are based on the idea that EO is an organization-wide strategy for fostering innovation. Besides the basic theoretical foundations rooted in the related concepts of intrapreneurship, CE and EO, the sample articles applied various lenses and theories to investigate intrapreneurship.
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Three theories, presented here, were applied most in the journal articles analysed. The Theory of Planned Behaviour TPB is well-established in the intention literature and relevant for analysing entrepreneurial intentions Ajzen , It is assumed that intentions predict human behaviour and therefore are of high relevance in research.
Based on the assumption that attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control influence intentions, intrapreneurship research has attempted to delineate differences in entrepreneurial versus intrapreneurial intentions Douglas and Fitzsimmons ; Tietz and Parker By investigating attitudes e. Furthermore, motivation theories are applied in the sample articles to examine motivational factors for engaging in innovative behaviour within established organizations Bicknell et al. In addition, different motives, e. The third theory most used is social learning theory Bandura , which states that the learning of novel behaviour is a cognitive process embedded in a social context and occurs through observation and imitation of others.
The theory suggests that cognition, behaviour and environment are connected in a reciprocal fashion. Self-efficacy is influenced by skills, their application and the feedback on applying these skills. Therefore self-efficacy is not only the result of performance, but is also the determinant for further and revised performance. In the field of entrepreneurship, the term entrepreneurial self-efficacy ESE has been established. The sample articles examined the ESE of employees and its key role in showing innovative behaviour and forming intrapreneurial intentions Douglas and Fitzsimmons ; Globocnik and Salomo ; Wakkee et al.
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In addition to the various theoretical lenses, the researchers also employed different definitions of intrapreneurship. As no common definition exists with regard to the perspective applied to the phenomenon, the journal articles examined specified intrapreneurship differently. A further criterion is the origin of intrapreneurial initiatives. These publications argued that employees play a key role in realizing intrapreneurial initiatives. A further attribute often used to define intrapreneurship is the expected outcome 13 articles.
Besides the constituents of these main attributes mentioned above, the authors used different terms for intrapreneurship. Therefore, the result is a puzzle of similar terms and synonyms that lead to the mixing of different theoretical perspectives e. Operational-level employees: demographics, personality, behaviour, perceptions, human capital, social capital, affiliation. Bicknell et al. Belousova and Gailly , Gwynne and Wolff , Kuratko et al. In the following sections, an overview of the research done in the various identified streams is provided. The research stream focusing on individual-level factors is divided into two sub-categories of operational-level employees and middle-level managers, as they play different roles in the intrapreneurship process due to their relative positions in established organizations.
Operational - level employees Various authors have examined factors predicting the innovative and entrepreneurial behaviour of the individual employee. An applied focus on demographic characteristics showed mixed results. Research work on education and age shows negative associations with innovation Camelo-Ordaz et al. In contrast, other research shows that high levels of education increase the likelihood of intrapreneurship Urbano and Turro Therefore, investigations focusing mainly on demographic variables are divergent and vague. In response, one approach often used in the entrepreneurship field to examine individual-level characteristics focuses on personality traits.
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Intrapreneurship researchers have tried to examine personality factors to identify intrapreneurs within organizations based on their specific traits e. Williamson et al.
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Based on the Big Five model, researchers have described specific traits that point to innovative employee behaviour. Sinha and Srivastava examined the impact of personality traits and work values on innovative employee behaviour the authors call it intrapreneurial orientation. Their research reveals that extraversion and the work values of altruism, creativity, management and achievement are positively associated with innovative behaviour. The results also show a negative association between neuroticism and intrapreneurial orientation.
Research based on the entrepreneurial value system shows that values such as persistence, ambition, creativity, risk taking and optimism can be said to influence innovation performance Camelo-Ordaz et al. When looking at these results, it should be borne in mind that the authors investigated individual-level factors in the context of creative firms and found that values such as creativity are of high importance by nature. As a further individual characteristic, initiative seems to play a key role, as employees with personal initiative are more likely to be intrapreneurs and are also more involved in intrapreneurial projects Rigtering and Weitzel The author argued that based on this, it is possible to determine if the innovation behaviour of employees is intrapreneurship bottom-up or rather CE top-down driven.
Zhu et al. In the context of an intra-organizational idea contest, the authors examined the effect of the creativity and proactivity of employees on their performance in this contest. The results show that a higher level of creativity is positively related to higher numbers of ideas being contributed, whereas a higher level of proactivity is positively related to higher numbers of ideas being accepted.
Based on their research, the authors developed a framework of four different innovation roles: follower low creativity and proactivity , proactive founder low creativity and high proactivity , creative innovator high creativity and low proactivity and intrapreneur high creativity and proactivity.
One limitation of research focusing on personality is the static character of traits. To take into account a more dynamic perspective, research concentrating on entrepreneurial behaviour is also a research approach identified in this field. Research on different attitude types and entrepreneurial careers has shown that attitudes to income, independence and ownership are related to entrepreneurship, whereas intrapreneurship is related to a weak risk tolerance. Also, the motives for potential intrapreneurs to show a certain behaviour have been analysed.
Research on financial, independence, recognition and role model motives undertaken by Tietz and Parker shows that the same motives that stimulate nascent venturing have the reverse effect on being selected by an organization into intrapreneurship. Closely linked to behaviour—and therefore the TPB—is the topic of perceptions.
In intrapreneurship research, perceptions concerning risk and uncertainty in particular are of high relevance in distinguishing intrapreneurs from entrepreneurs.
The results of research show that intrapreneurs are quite similar to entrepreneurs with regard to uncertainty and risk perceptions Matthews et al. In contrast, intrapreneurs seem to be more elaborate planners, with higher growth expectations. The authors explained these results based on the established organizational environment of intrapreneurs, which forces them to engage in planning activities that in turn also lead to higher growth expectations. In addition, the research of Martiarena shows that intrapreneurs present greater levels of risk aversion and lower levels of expected earnings than entrepreneurs.
One main research stream focuses on the human capital of intrapreneurs. Following prior research, the sub-categories distinguish between general and specific human capital related to intrapreneurship. General human capital refers to skills, knowledge and experiences that are useful in multiple situations, whereas specific human capital refers to content-specific situations that are primarily useful in intrapreneurial situations. One main contribution referring to general human capital is the work of Parker , who examined the issue of entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship.
He identified several factors and pointed out that general human capital leads to start-up activities entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship —and to entrepreneurship in particular—as it is useful in various situations within and outside an existing organization.
Other research applying human capital theory also points to the relevance of general human capital in terms of the provision of necessary entrepreneurial skills Gwynne and Wolff ; Martiarena and competencies. They examined the effect of different types of competencies, as well as participation in entrepreneurship education programmes among European higher education graduate professionals.
Employees with brokering competencies are able to combine knowledge with organizational knowledge, social capital and networking skills. Therefore, with regard to intrapreneurial behaviour, brokering competencies are of special interest. Entrepreneurship education programmes were also found to increase the likelihood of introducing innovations at work.
In contrast to the factors mentioned above, specific human capital focuses on specific—in this case intrapreneurship-oriented—skills and experiences. Similar to the case of entrepreneurship, opportunity recognition plays a significant role when it comes to intrapreneurship. Research results show that the ability to identify business opportunities enhances the opportunity for intrapreneurship Urbano and Turro Detailed research stresses opportunity recognition as an important factor in defining intrapreneurs in contrast to entrepreneurs and employees: entrepreneurs recognize more business opportunities than intrapreneurs, but intrapreneurs recognize more business opportunities than employees Martiarena Opportunity recognition and entrepreneurial opportunities have also gained in importance for engineers.
In addition, the authors investigated different types of knowledge and their value. The results estimate that potential knowledge the adaptability to transfer knowledge is of particular value to firms as it enables them to adapt to changes. Potential knowledge lies in the individual and can been seen as intellectual property. If firms do not value this, individuals will want to maximize their personal return on the potential knowledge and therefore will decide either to become entrepreneurs or to foster intrapreneurial activities.
As a further factor, business planning activities are a distinctive feature of entrepreneurs versus intrapreneurs. Due to the established organizational environment, intrapreneurs are tied to planning activities and hence also show higher levels of business planning activities Matthews et al. One relevant entrepreneurship-specific aspect with regard to intrapreneurship again concerns the concept of ESE.